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Fragrances are made up of a combination of natural and synthetic materials, typically essential oils, extracts, synthetic aroma chemicals and some novel ingredients.

Extracts – A concentrated product obtained by treating a natural raw material with a solvent. Extracts sometimes cause problems for perfumers as they are often insoluble in different solvents as used in the fragrance.

Fixatives – Materials that modify the rate of evaporation of the volatile components to allow a more even smell of the fragrance.

Aroma chemicals – These are organic chemicals, typically the esters, aldehydes and ketones of various aromatics. Usually synthetic but can be Natural Identical and sometimes Natural.

Fragrance Construction

Top Notes
These are the notes, or odors, that are first detected when you experience a fragrance. They are the lighter or fresher type smells and they do not last very long.

Middle Notes
These are the notes you smell after the top notes. Many feel that the true character of the fragrance is exhibited to a major degree by these notes. They tend to be the floral and plant extract types.

Base Notes
These are the bottom or residual notes. They are the last to be lost and as a result are considered to be more stable to dry-down. Examples of base notes are the vanillas, woods, heavy plant extracts and some spice notes.

Dry Down
The action of monitoring the changes in the fragrance as it dries by smelling it at different intervals.