Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen
IUPAC names: Titanium Dioxide
Other name: Titania
CAS Number: 13463-67-7
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white mineral substance that occurs naturally in several kinds of rock and sand. It is chemically inert, thermally stable, non-flammable, non-hazardous, and poorly soluble in water.
(1) Pigment grade TiO2 which is used as an pacifier. The primary particle size of this grade is manufactured such that the visible light will be scattered to create the opacity. It is used as a colorant to impart colour or opacity to a product.
(2) Nano (ultrafine) grade TiO2 consists of particles in the micron (μm) size range (primary particles less than 100 nm). It is transparent and due to the smaller size of primary particles and higher surface area, it allows the manufacture of various catalysts of enhanced activity.
1. Pigment Grade:
1.1 Pigment Grade Titanium dioxide has been used for many years in a vast range of industrial and consumer goods including paints, coatings, adhesives, paper and paperboard, plastics and
rubber, printing inks, coated fabrics and textiles, catalyst systems, ceramics, floor coverings, roofing
materials, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, water treatment agents, food colorants and in automotive products, etc. It absorbs UV light.
1.1.1 Used in Polymers: When TiO2 pigment is incorporated in a polymer, it minimizes degradation of the system (embrittlement, fading and cracking). Surface treating of the TiO2 can further improve this property.
1.1.2 Used in Paints: When used in paint or coating system, this effect ensures the longevity of the paint and the continued protection of the substrate. In exterior applications the coolness conferred by TiO2 colored surfaces leads to considerable energy savings in warm and tropical area by light reflectance thus reducing the need for air-conditioning.
2. Nano (Ultrafine) Grade TiO2
2.1 Nano Grade (Ultrafine) TiO2 are transparent and more effective as UV absorbers or photocatalysts. The transparency and UV absorbance allow for effective use as a protective ingredient for sunscreens.
2.2 Due to the smaller size of primary particles and higher surface area, TiO2 as a nanomaterial allows the manufacture of various catalysts of enhanced activity.
2.3 TiO2 as a nanomaterial (ultrafine) appears transparent whilst still providing UV light absorption.
Surface treatments allow dispersion in different media and efficient absorption of UV energy
2.4 When untreated, it can be used to decompose environmental pollutants by photocatalysis.
2.5 TiO2 as a nanomaterial (ultrafine) is used for example as a DeNOx catalyst support in exhaust gas systems in cars, trucks and power plants, thus minimizing their environmental impact.
Percentage in Cosmetics / Sunblock
5% minimum; 10-20% is ideal. It is more common to see 2-7% concentrations. 25% is the legal maximum.
Anything at this level in a cream form will be very thick and uncomfortable for daily wear on the face.
Unless you are extremely photosensitive, this level would be more appropriate for intense sunshine, e.g. trekking in the desert, skiing, or hiking at high altitude. In mineral powder form, over 15% is ideal